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In 1918, during the German Revolution, the ruling house of Wittelsbach, which governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich and a short-lived socialist republic was declared.In the 1920s, Munich became home to several political factions, among them the NSDAP.The first attempt of the Nazi movement to take over the German government in 1923 with the Beer Hall Putsch was stopped by the Bavarian police in Munich with gunfire.After the Nazi's rise to power, Munich was declared their "Capital of the Movement".It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order, who ran a monastery at the place that was later to become the Old Town of Munich; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat of arms. Catholic Munich was a cultural stronghold of the Counter-Reformation and a political point of divergence during the resulting Thirty Years' War, but remained physically untouched despite an occupation by the Protestant Swedes.Once Bavaria was established as a sovereign kingdom in 1806, it became a major European centre of arts, architecture, culture and science.Unlike many other German cities which were heavily bombed and destroyed, Munich restored most of its traditional cityscape and hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics.The 1980s brought strong economic growth, high-tech industries and scientific institutions, and population growth.
Munich is also the third largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, and the 12th largest city in the European Union, with a population of around 1.5 million.
Many of the city's finest buildings belong to this period and were built under the first three Bavarian kings.
Especially Ludwig I rendered outstanding services to Munich's status as a centre of the arts, attracting numerous artists and enhancing the city's architectural substance with grand boulevards and buildings.
The city is a major centre of art, technology, finance, publishing, culture, innovation, education, business, and tourism in Germany and Europe and enjoys a very high standard and quality of living, reaching first in Germany and fourth worldwide according to the 2015 Mercer survey.
The name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning "by the monks".
In 1175, Munich received city status and fortification.